Doc 9157, Aerodrome Design Manual — Part 1, Runways. Fourth edition, 2020.
Since the publication of the 3rd edition of this Manual in 2006, the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) in Annex 14, Aerodromes, Volume I — Aerodrome Design and Operations germane to physical characteristics of aerodromes had undergone several cycles of amendments. Much of the guidance material included herein reproduces and is closely associated with the latest SARPs contained in the Annex. They are intended to facilitate the uniform application of those specifications related to the geometric design of runways and associated aerodrome elements, namely, runway shoulders, runway strips, runway end safety areas, clearways and stopways.
Modern and well-equipped aircraft have increased capabilities obtained by advanced technologies, often providing very precise trajectories on landing/take-off. Amendment 14 to Annex 14, Volume I, reduced, among others, the runway width from 60 m to 45 m for aeroplanes with an outer main gear wheel span (OMGWS) from 9 m up to but not including 15 m. This reduction is based on actual landing deviation studies of code F aeroplanes, which have demonstrated that the standard deviation from the centre line of a 45 m wide runway is less than what was assumed previously. Together with improved specifications related to runway shoulders and runway strips, these result in a more efficient use of land surface, particularly at aerodromes where real estate is at a premium.
Another significant milestone in this edition is the revised methodology for determining the aerodrome reference code for determining the numerous specifications concerning the characteristics of aerodromes. Amendment 14 decorrelated the current two code letter components, i.e. wingspan and OMGWS. since it is observed that while wingspan is relevant for aerodrome characteristics related to separation distances (e.g. obstacles, strips), the OMGWS impacts mainly ground-based manoeuvring characteristics (e.g. runway and taxiway widths). It is recognized that the two components should be used separately, since using the most demanding component may cause overdesign, either for separations or runway/taxiway width for some aeroplane types.
Existing Appendices related to aeroplane classification and runway turnpads have been updated, and a new Appendix providing guidance on performance and compatibility requirements for aircraft arresting systems has been added.